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Undisputed Truth. Je nach eigenen Richtlinien und den speziellen rechtlichen Bedingungen, an die Entwickler gebunden sind, können sie möglicherweise eine Erstattung vornehmen. Heather Morris. Aufgrund der Ausbreitung des Coronavirus setzen wir derzeit nur eine begrenzte Zahl von Mitarbeitern ein, um die Gesundheit unserer Support-Spezialisten zu schützen.

China and Afghanistan had neutral relations with each other during the King's rule. When the pro-Soviet Afghan Communists seized power in Afghanistan in , relations between China and the Afghan communists quickly turned hostile.

The Afghan pro-Soviet communists supported China's enemies in Vietnam and blamed China for supporting Afghan anti-communist militants.

China responded to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan by supporting the Afghan mujahideen and ramping up their military presence near Afghanistan in Xinjiang.

China acquired military equipment from the United States to defend itself from Soviet attack.

Hundreds of millions of dollars worth of anti-aircraft missiles, rocket launchers, and machine guns were given to the Mujahidin by the Chinese.

Chinese military advisors and army troops were also present with the Mujahidin during training.

In the s, China shrunk its military considerably to free up resources for economic development , resulting in the relative decline in resources devoted to the PLA.

Following the PLA's suppression of the Tiananmen Square protests of , ideological correctness was temporarily revived as the dominant theme in Chinese military affairs.

Reform and modernisation have today resumed their position as the PLA's primary objectives, although the armed forces' political loyalty to the CPC has remained a leading concern.

Another area of concern to the political leadership was the PLA's involvement in civilian economic activities.

These activities were thought to have impacted PLA readiness and has led the political leadership to attempt to divest the PLA from its non-military business interests.

Beginning in the s, the PLA tried to transform itself from a land-based power centred on a vast ground force to a smaller, more mobile, high-tech one capable of mounting operations beyond its borders.

The motivation for this was that a massive land invasion by Russia was no longer seen as a major threat, and the new threats to China are seen to be a declaration of independence by Taiwan , possibly with assistance from the United States, or a confrontation over the Spratly Islands.

In , under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the CMC, the PLA changed from being constantly prepared to "hit early, strike hard and to fight a nuclear war" to developing the military in an era of peace.

The PLA reoriented itself to modernization, improving its fighting ability, and to become a world-class force. Deng Xiaoping stressed that the PLA needed to focus more on quality rather than on quantity.

The decision of the Chinese government in to reduce the size of the military by one million was completed by Staffing in military leadership was cut by about 50 percent.

The PLA had also been expected to be reduced by another , by The PLA has focused on increasing mechanisation and informatization so as to be able to fight a high-intensity war.

The possibility of a militarised Japan has also been a continuous concern to the Chinese leadership since the late s.

In addition, China's military leadership has been reacting to and learning from the successes and failures of the American military during the Kosovo War , the invasion of Afghanistan , the invasion of Iraq , and the Iraqi insurgency.

All these lessons inspired China to transform the PLA from a military based on quantity to one based on quality. Chairman Jiang Zemin officially made a " Revolution in Military Affairs " RMA part of the official national military strategy in to modernise the Chinese armed forces.

A goal of the RMA is to transform the PLA into a force capable of winning what it calls "local wars under high-tech conditions" rather than a massive, numbers-dominated ground-type war.

Chinese military planners call for short decisive campaigns, limited in both their geographic scope and their political goals.

In contrast to the past, more attention is given to reconnaissance , mobility, and deep reach. This new vision has shifted resources towards the navy and air force.

The PLA is also actively preparing for space warfare and cyber-warfare. For the past 10 to 20 years, the PLA has acquired some advanced weapons systems from Russia, including Sovremenny class destroyers , Sukhoi Su and Sukhoi Su aircraft, and Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines.

It has also started to produce several new classes of destroyers and frigates including the Type D class guided missile destroyer.

The PLA launched the new Jin class nuclear submarines on 3 December capable of launching nuclear warheads that could strike targets across the Pacific Ocean and have two aircraft carriers, one commissioned in and a second launched in Such units usually include engineers and logistical units and members of the paramilitary People's Armed Police and have been deployed as part of peacekeeping operations in Lebanon , [23] the Republic of the Congo , [24] Sudan , [25] Ivory Coast , [26] Haiti , [27] and more recently, Mali and South Sudan.

The state military system upholds the principle of the CPC's absolute leadership over the armed forces.

The party and the State jointly established the CMC that carries out the task of supreme military leadership over the armed forces.

The Constitution stated that the State President directs the armed forces and made the State President the chairman of the Defense Commission.

The Defense Commission is an advisory body and does not hold any actual power over the armed forces. From that time onward, the current system of a joint system of party and state leadership of the military was established.

The Central Committee of the Communist Party leads in all military affairs. The State President directs the state military forces and the development of the military forces which is managed by the State Council.

To ensure the absolute leadership of the Communist Party over the armed forces, every level of party committee in the military forces implements the principles of democratic centralism.

In addition, division-level and higher units establish political commissars and political organisations, ensuring that the branch organisations are in line.

These systems combined the party organisation with the military organisation to achieve the party's leadership and administrative leadership.

This is seen as the key guarantee to the absolute leadership of the party over the military. In October the PLA Daily reminded readers of the Gutian Congress , which stipulated the basic principle of the Party controlling the military, and called for vigilance as "[f]oreign hostile forces preach the nationalization and de-politicization of the military, attempting to muddle our minds and drag our military out from under the Party's flag.

The leadership by the CPC is a fundamental principle of the Chinese military command system. In practice, the two central military commissions usually do not contradict each other because their membership is usually identical.

Often, the only difference in membership between the two occurs for a few months every five years, during the period between a party congress, when Party CMC membership changes, and the next ensuing National People's Congress , when the state CMC changes.

The leadership of each type of military force is under the leadership and management of the corresponding part of the Central Military Commission of the CPC Central Committee.

Forces under each military branch or force such as the subordinate forces, academies and schools, scientific research and engineering institutions and logistical support organisations are also under the leadership of the CMC.

This arrangement has been especially useful as China over the past several decades has moved increasingly towards military organisations composed of forces from more than one military branch.

In September , to meet the needs of modernisation and to improve co-ordination in the command of forces including multiple service branches and to strengthen unified command of the military, the CMC ordered the abolition of the leadership organisation of the various military branches.

Today, the PLA has air force, navy and second artillery leadership organs. In , the People's Armed Forces Department, except in some border regions, was placed under the joint leadership of the PLA and the local authorities.

Although the local party organisations paid close attention to the People's Armed Forces Department, as a result of some practical problems, the CMC decided that from 1 April , the People's Armed Forces Department would once again fall under the jurisdiction of the PLA.

The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the commission. In December , the fifth National People's Congress revised the state constitution to state that the State Central Military Commission leads all the armed forces of the state.

However, the CMC of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party remained the party organisation that directly commands the military and all the other armed forces.

However, looking at it organizationally, these two CMCs are subordinate to two different systems — the party system and the state system.

Therefore, the armed forces are under the absolute leadership of the Communist Party and are also the armed forces of the state.

This is a unique joint leadership system that reflects the origin of the PLA as the military branch of the Communist Party.

It only became the national military when the People's Republic of China was established in By convention, the chairman and vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission are civilian members of the Communist Party of China, but they are not necessarily the heads of the civilian government.

Both Jiang Zemin and Deng Xiaoping retained the office of chairman even after relinquishing their other positions. All of the other members of the CMC are uniformed active military officials.

Unlike other nations, the Minister of National Defense is not the head of the military, but is usually a vice-chairman of the CMC.

In , to attempt to reduce corruption at the highest rungs of the leadership of the Chinese military, the commission banned the service of alcohol at military receptions.

On 1 January , The Central Military Commission CMC released a guideline [31] on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after CMC Chairman Xi Jinping called for an overhaul of the military administration and command system at a key meeting.

The previous four general headquarters of the PLA were disbanded and completely reformed. They were divided into 15 functional departments instead — a significant expansion from the domain of the General Office, which is now a single department within the Central Military Commission.

Included among the 15 departments are three commissions. Until , China's territory was divided into seven military regions , but they were reorganized into five theater commands in early This reflects a change in their concept of operations from primarily ground-oriented to mobile and coordinated movement of all services.

The military reforms have also introduced a major change in the areas of responsibilities. Rather than separately commanding their own troops, service branches are now primarily responsible for administrative tasks like equipping and maintaining the troops.

It is the theater commands now that have the command authority. This should, in theory, facilitate the implementation of joint operations across all service branches.

Coordination with civilian national security groups such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is achieved primarily by the leading groups of the Communist Party of China.

Particularly important are the leading groups on foreign affairs, which include those dealing with Taiwan.

Following the , troop reduction announced in , the total strength of the PLA has been reduced from 2. Further reforms will see an additional , personnel reduction from its current strength of 2.

The reductions will come mainly from non-combat ground forces, which will allow more funds to be diverted to naval, air, and strategic missile forces.

This shows China's shift from ground force prioritisation to emphasising air and naval power with high-tech equipment for offensive roles over disputed coastal territories.

As well as learning from the success of the US military in network-centric warfare , joint operations, C4ISR , and hi-tech weaponry , the PLA is also studying unconventional tactics that could be used to exploit the vulnerabilities of a more technologically advanced enemy.

This has been reflected in the two parallel guidelines for the PLA ground forces development. While speeding up the process of introducing new technology into the force and retiring the older equipment, the PLA has also placed an emphasis on asymmetric warfare , including exploring new methods of using existing equipment to defeat a technologically superior enemy.

In addition to the four main service branches, the PLA is supported by two paramilitary organisations : the People's Armed Police including the China Coast Guard and the Militia including the maritime militia.

In times of crisis, the PLA Ground Force will be reinforced by numerous reserve and paramilitary units. In recent years two amphibious mechanised divisions were also established in Nanjing and Guangzhou MR.

At least 40 percent of PLA divisions and brigades are now mechanised or armoured, almost double the percentage before While much of the PLA Ground Force was being reduced over the past few years, technology-intensive elements such as special operations forces SOF , army aviation , surface-to-air missiles SAMs , and electronic warfare units have all been rapidly expanded.

The latest operational doctrine of the PLA ground forces highlights the importance of information technology, electronic and information warfare , and long-range precision strikes in future warfare.

On 1 January , as part of military reforms, China created for the first time a separate headquarters for the ground forces.

Previously, the People's Liberation Army's Four General Departments served as the de facto army headquarters, functioning together as the equivalent of a joint staff, to which the navy, air force and the newly renamed Rocket Force would report.

The Political Commissar is Liu Lei. Since then it has undergone rapid modernisation. Each fleet consists of a number of surface ship , submarine , naval air force , coastal defence , and marine units.

The navy includes a 15, strong Marine Corps organised into two brigades , a 26, strong Naval Aviation Force operating several hundred attack helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

In November , then Party General Secretary Hu Jintao reported to the Chinese Communist Party 18th National Congress his desire to "enhance our capacity for exploiting marine resource and build China into a strong maritime power".

J-XX and XXJ are names applied by Western intelligence agencies to describe programs by the People's Republic of China to develop one or more fifth-generation fighter aircraft.

China's total nuclear arsenal size is estimated to be between and thermo nuclear weapons. The PLARF has approximately , personnel and six ballistic missile divisions missile corps bases.

The six divisions are independently deployed in different theater commands and have a total of 15 to 20 missile brigades.

It as strength of , Additionally, commentators speculate that it will include high-tech operations forces such as space, cyberspace and electronic warfare operations units, independent of other branches of the military.

Technically, military service with the PLA is obligatory for all Chinese citizens. In practice, mandatory military service has not been implemented since as the People's Liberation Army has been able to recruit sufficient numbers voluntarily.

In practice, registering does not mean that the person doing so must join the People's Liberation Army. Article 55 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China prescribes conscription by stating: "It is a sacred duty of every citizen of the People's Republic of China to defend his or her motherland and resist invasion.

It is an honoured obligation of the citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and to join the militia forces.

This law has not been amended since it came into effect. Technically, those 18—22 years of age enter selective compulsory military service, with a month service obligation.

In reality, numbers of registering personals are enough to support all military posts in China, creating so-called "volunteer conscription".

Residents of the Special administrative regions , Hong Kong and Macau , are exempted from joining the military.

The Joint Staff Department carries out staff and operational functions for the PLA and had major responsibility for implementing military modernisation plans.

The Joint Staff Department included functionally organised subdepartments for operations , training , intelligence , mobilisation , surveying , communications and politics, the departments for artillery , armoured units, quartermaster units and joint forces engineering units were later dissolved, with the former two forming now part of the Ground Forces, the engineering formations now split amongst the service branches and the quartermaster formations today form part of the Joint Logistics Forces.

Air Force Headquarters generally exercised control through the commanders of the five theater commands.

Nuclear forces were directly subordinate to the Joint Staff Department through the Rocket Forces commander and political commissar.

Conventional main, regional, and militia units were controlled administratively by the theater commanders, but the Joint Staff Department in Beijing could assume direct operational control of any main-force unit at will.

Thus, broadly speaking, the Joint Staff Department exercises operational control of the main forces, and the theater commanders controlled as always the regional forces and, indirectly, the militia.

The post of principal intelligence official in the top leadership of the Chinese military has been taken up by a number of people of several generations, from Li Kenong in the s to Xiong Guangkai in the late s; and their public capacity has always been assistant to the deputy chief of staff or assistant to the chief of staff.

Ever since the CPC officially established the system of "theater commands" for its army in the s as a successor to the "major military regions" policy of the s, the intelligence agencies inside the Army have, after going through several major evolutions, developed into the present three major military intelligence setups:.

The Second Bureau under the headquarters and the Liaison Department under the Political Work Departments of the theater commands are only subjected to the "professional leadership" of their "counterpart" units under the Central Military Commission and are still considered the direct subordinate units of the major military region organizationally.

Those entities whose names include the word "institute", all research institutes under the charge of the Second and the Third Departments of the Joint Staff Headquarters, including other research organs inside the Army, are at least of the establishment size of the full regimental level.

Among the deputy commanders of a major Theater command in China, there is always one who is assigned to take charge of intelligence work, and the intelligence agencies under his charge are directly affiliated to the headquarters and the political department of the corresponding theater command.

Although the four aspects emphasised by Chi Haotian appeared to be defensive measures, they were in fact both defensive and offensive in nature.

The Second Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters is responsible for collecting military intelligence.

Preliminary fusion is carried out by the Second Department's Analysis Bureau which mans the National Watch Center, the focal point for national-level indications and warning.

In-depth analysis is carried out by regional bureaus. Although traditionally the Second Department of the Joint Staff Department was responsible for military intelligence, it is beginning to increasingly focus on scientific and technological intelligence in the military field, following the example of Russian agencies in stepping up the work of collecting scientific and technological information.

It also supplies officers to the military intelligence sections of various military regions and group armies. The Institute of International Relations was known in the s as the School for Foreign Language Cadres of the Central Military Commission, with the current name being used since The training of intelligence personnel is one of several activities at the institute.

The former Institute of International Relations, since been renamed the Foreign Affairs College , is under the administration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is not involved in secret intelligence work.

The former Central Military Commission foreign language school had foreign faculty members who were either Communist Party sympathizers or were members of foreign communist parties.

But the present Institute of International Relations does not hire foreign teachers, to avoid the danger that its students might be recognised when sent abroad as clandestine agents.

As long as they refrain from directly subversive activities, they are considered as well-behaved "military diplomats". Some bureaus under the Second Department which are responsible for espionage in different regions, of which the First Bureau is responsible for collecting information in the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau , and also in Taiwan.

Agents are dispatched by the Second Department to companies and other local corporations to gain cover. The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group assigned to Hong Kong and Macau in the mids mostly operated in the mass media, political, industrial, commercial, and religious circles, as well as in universities and colleges.

The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group was mainly responsible for the following three tasks:. It was further awarded another Citation for Merit, Second Class, in Its current status is not publicly known.

The Third Department of the Joint Staff Department is responsible for monitoring the telecommunications of foreign armies and producing finished intelligence based on the military information collected.

The communications stations established by the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters are not subject to the jurisdiction of the provincial military district and the major theater command of where they are based.

The communications stations are entirely the agencies of the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters which have no affiliations to the provincial military district and the military region of where they are based.

The personnel composition, budgets, and establishment of these communications stations are entirely under the jurisdiction of the Third Department of the General PLA General Staff Headquarters, and are not related at all with local troops.

As of the late s, SIGINT systems included several dozen ground stations, half a dozen ships, truck-mounted systems, and airborne systems.

As of the late s, the Third Department was allegedly manned by approximately 20, personnel, with most of their linguists trained at the Luoyang Institute of Foreign Languages.

Ever since the s, the Second and Third Departments of the Joint Staff Headquarters have established a number of institutions of secondary and higher learning for bringing up "special talents.

Though the distribution order they received upon graduation indicated the "Joint Staff Headquarters", many of the graduates of these schools found themselves being sent to all parts of the country, including remote and uninhabited backward mountain areas.

The reason is that the monitoring and control stations under the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters are scattered in every corner of the country.

In normal times, these two communications stations report directly to the Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters.

Units responsible for co-ordination are the communications stations established in the garrison provinces of the military regions by the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters.

By taking direct command of military communications stations based in all parts of the country, the CPC Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters can not only ensure a successful interception of enemy radio communications , but can also make sure that none of the wire or wireless communications and contacts among major military regions can escape the detection of these communications stations, thus effectively attaining the goal of imposing a direct supervision and control over all major military regions , all provincial military districts , and all group armies.

SIGINT stations, therefore, are scattered through the country, for domestic as well as international interception. Of the stations apparently targeting Russia, there are sites at Jilemutu and Jixi in the northeast, and at Erlian and Hami near the Mongolian border.

There is a large facility at Dayi, and, according to Ball, "numerous" small posts along the Indian border.

Other significant facilities are located near Shenyang , near Jinan and in Nanjing and Shanghai. Additional stations are in the Fujian and Guangdong military districts opposite Taiwan.

China also has ship and aircraft platforms in this area, under the South Sea Fleet headquarters at Zhanjiang immediately north of the island.

There are also truck-mounted mobile ground systems, as well as ship, aircraft, and limited satellite capability.

There are at least 10 intelligence-gathering auxiliary vessels. As of the late nineties, the Chinese did not appear to be trying to monitor the United States Pacific Command to the same extent as does Russia.

In future, this had depended, in part, on the status of Taiwan. This department is responsible for electronic countermeasures , requiring them to collect and maintain data bases on electronic signals.

It is responsible for overseeing the political education, indoctrination and discipline that is a prerequisite for advancement within the PLA.

The department conducts ideological and political work on foreign armies, explaining China's policies, and disintegrate enemy armies by dampening their morale.

It is also tasked with instigating rebellions and disloyalty within the Taiwan military and other foreign militaries. The Liaison Office has dispatched agents to infiltrate Chinese-funded companies and private institutions in Hong Kong.

Their mission is counter-espionage , monitoring their own agents, and preventing and detecting foreign intelligence services buying off Chinese personnel.

It includes highly trained soldiers, a team of commander, assistant commander, sniper, spotter, machine-gun supporter, bomber, and a pair of assault groups.

The name changes frequently. China has reportedly developed a force capable of carrying out long-range airborne operations, long-range reconnaissance, and amphibious operations.

Formed in China's Guangzhou military region and known by the nickname "Sword of Southern China", the force supposedly receives army, air force, and naval training, including flight training, and is equipped with "hundreds of high-tech devices", including global-positioning satellite systems.

All of the force's officers have completed military staff colleges, and 60 percent are said to have university degrees. Soldiers are reported to be cross-trained in various specialties, and training is supposed to encompass a range of operational environments.

It is far from clear whether this unit is considered operational by the Chinese. It is also not clear how such a force would be employed.

Among the missions mentioned were "responding to contingencies in various regions" and "cooperating with other services in attacks on islands".

According to the limited reporting, the organisation appears to be in a phase of testing and development and may constitute an experimental unit.

While no size for the force has been revealed, there have been Chinese media claims that "over 4, soldiers of the force are all-weather and versatile fighters and parachutists who can fly airplanes and drive auto vehicles and motor boats".

According to the United States Defense Department , China is developing kinetic-energy weapons, high-powered lasers, high-powered microwave weapons , particle-beam weapons , and electromagnetic pulse weapons with its increase of military fundings.

The PLA has said of reports that its modernisation is dependent on sales of advanced technology from American allies "Some people have politicized China's normal commercial cooperation with foreign countries, smearing our reputation.

According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 's data, China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in —14, an increase of percent from the period — China supplied major arms to 35 states in — A significant percentage just over 68 percent of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

China also exported major arms to 18 African states. Examples of China's increasing global presence as an arms supplier in —14 included deals with Venezuela for armoured vehicles and transport and trainer aircraft, with Algeria for three frigates, with Indonesia for the supply of hundreds of anti-ship missiles and with Nigeria for the supply of a number of unmanned combat aerial vehicles.

Following rapid advances in its arms industry, China has become less dependent on arms imports, which decreased by 42 percent between — and — Russia accounted for 61 percent of Chinese arms imports, followed by France with 16 percent and Ukraine with 13 per cent.

Helicopters formed a major part of Russian and French deliveries, with the French designs produced under licence in China.

Over the years, China has struggled to design and produce effective engines for combat and transport vehicles.

It continued to import large numbers of engines from Russia and Ukraine in —14 for indigenously designed combat, advanced trainer and transport aircraft, and for naval ships.

It also produced British-, French- and German-designed engines for combat aircraft, naval ships and armoured vehicles, mostly as part of agreements that have been in place for decades.

There is a belief in the western military doctrines that the PLA have already begun engaging countries using cyber-warfare.

Cyberwarfare has gained recognition as a valuable technique because it is an asymmetric technique that is a part of Chinese Information Operations.

As is written by two PLAGF Colonels, Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, "Methods that are not characterised by the use of the force of arms, nor by the use of military power, nor even by the presence of casualties and bloodshed, are just as likely to facilitate the successful realisation of the war's goals, if not more so.

While China has long been suspected of cyber spying , on 24 May the PLA announced the existence of their cyber security squad. In , China decided to proceed with a nuclear weapons program.

The decision was made after the United States threatened the use of nuclear weapons against China should it take action against Quemoy and Matsu , coupled with the lack of interest of the Soviet Union for using its nuclear weapons in defence of China.

After their first nuclear test China claims minimal Soviet assistance before on 16 October , China was the first state to pledge no-first-use of nuclear weapons.

In , China tested a fully functional hydrogen bomb , only 32 months after China had made its first fission device.

China thus produced the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history. China became a major international arms exporter during the s.

China acceded to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty NPT in and supported its indefinite and unconditional extension in Nuclear weapons tests by China ceased in , when it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and agreed to seek an international ban on the production of fissile nuclear weapons material.

In , China committed to provide assistance to unsafeguarded nuclear facilities. The Zangger Committee is a group which meets to list items that should be subject to IAEA inspections if exported by countries, which have, as China has, signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

In September , China issued detailed nuclear export control regulations. China began implementing regulations establishing controls over nuclear-related dual-use items in China also has decided not to engage in new nuclear co-operation with Iran even under safeguards , and will complete existing co-operation, which is not of proliferation concern, within a relatively short period.

Based on significant, tangible progress with China on nuclear nonproliferation, President Clinton in took steps to bring into force the US—China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation.

Beijing has deployed a modest ballistic missile force, including land and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs.

China's nuclear program follows a doctrine of minimal deterrence , which involves having the minimum force needed to deter an aggressor from launching a first strike.

The current efforts of China appear to be aimed at maintaining a survivable nuclear force by, for example, using solid-fuelled ICBMs in silos rather than liquid-fuelled missiles.

China's published deterrence policy states that they will "uphold the principles of counterattack in self-defense and limited development of nuclear weapons", but "has never entered, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any country".

It goes on to describe that China will never undertake a first strike, or use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear state or zone.

The PLA is responsible for the Chinese space program. The PLA started the development of an anti-ballistic and anti-satellite system in the s, code named Project , including ground-based lasers and anti-satellite missiles.

Only a few pictures have appeared since it was revealed in late Tests with speeds up to Mach 20 were reached around Military spending for the People's Liberation Army has grown about 10 percent annually over the last 15 years.

According to SIPRI , China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in —, an increase of per cent from the period — A significant percentage just over 68 per cent of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

Examples of China's increasing global presence as an arms supplier in — included deals with Venezuela for armoured vehicles and transport and trainer aircraft, with Algeria for three frigates, with Indonesia for the supply of hundreds of anti-ship missiles and with Nigeria for the supply of a number of unmanned combat aerial vehicles.

Following rapid advances in its domestic arms industry, China has become less dependent on arms imports, which decreased by 42 per cent between — and — This is an essential work for anyone who wants to go beyond the awareness of racism to the next step: contributing to the formation of a just and equitable society.

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The odds are against him. Their fates are now completely intertwined — every choice Coriolanus makes could lead to favor or failure, triumph or ruin.

Inside the arena, it will be a fight to the death. Outside the arena, Coriolanus starts to feel for his doomed tribute. Michelle Alexander.

Most important of all, it has spawned a whole generation of criminal justice reform activists and organizations motivated by Michelle Alexanders unforgettable argument that we have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it.

As the Birmingham News proclaimed, it is undoubtedly the most important book published in this century about the U.

Now, ten years after it was first published, The New Press is proud to issue a tenth-anniversary edition with a new preface by Michelle Alexander that discusses the impact the book has had and the state of the criminal justice reform movement today.

George Orwell. Blackstone Audio presents a new recording of this immensely popular book. George Orwell depicts a gray, totalitarian world dominated by Big Brother and its vast network of agents, including the Thought Police, a world in which news is manufactured according to the authorities' will and people live tepid lives by rote.

Winston Smith, the hero with no heroic qualities, longs only for truth and decency. But living in a social system in which privacy does not exist and where those with unorthodox ideas are brainwashed or put to death, he knows there is no hope for him.

He knows even as he continues to pursue his forbidden love affair that eventually he will come to destruction.

The year has come and gone, yet George Orwell's nightmare vision in of the world we were becoming is still the great modern classic of negative Utopia.

The Summer House. James Patterson. When seven murder victims are found in a small town, the homicide investigation shakes a small-town sheriff to her core in James Patterson's tense thriller.

Once a luxurious southern getaway on a rustic lake, then reduced to a dilapidated crash pad, the Summer House is now the grisly scene of a nighttime mass murder.

Eyewitnesses point to four Army Rangers -- known as the Night Ninjas -- recently returned from Afghanistan. But the major and his elite team arrive in sweltering Georgia with no idea their grim jobs will be made exponentially more challenging by local law enforcement, who resists the Army's intrusion and stonewall them at every turn.

As Cook and his squad struggle to uncover the truth behind the condemning evidence, the pieces just won't fit -- and forces are rallying to make certain damning secrets die alongside the victims in the murder house.

With his own people in the cross-hairs, Cook takes a desperate gamble to find answers -- even if it means returning to a hell of his own worst nightmares.

Max Brooks. Yet it is also far more than that. Because if what Kate Holland saw in those days is real, then we must accept the impossible.

We must accept that the creature known as Bigfoot walks among us—and that it is a beast of terrible strength and ferocity. Vol 1. The wait is over!

Ever since the conclusion of Avatar: The Last Airbender, its millions of fans have been hungry for more—and it's finally here!

This series of digests rejoins Aang and friends for exciting new adventures, beginning with a faceoff against the Fire Nation that threatens to throw the world into another war, testing all of Aang's powers and ingenuity!

Trevor Noah. Trevor was born to a white Swiss father and a black Xhosa mother at a time when such a union was punishable by five years in prison.

Born a Crime is the story of a mischievous young boy who grows into a restless young man as he struggles to find himself in a world where he was never supposed to exist.

The stories collected here are by turns hilarious, dramatic, and deeply affecting. Whether subsisting on caterpillars for dinner during hard times, being thrown from a moving car during an attempted kidnapping, or just trying to survive the life-and-death pitfalls of dating in high school, Trevor illuminates his curious world with an incisive wit and unflinching honesty.

It is, above all, a way of asserting power. Winston Smith is a man in grave danger for the simple reason that his memory still functions.

Drawn into a forbidden love affair, Winston finds the courage to join a secret revolutionary organization called The Brotherhood, dedicated to the destruction of the Party.

Together with his beloved Julia, he hazards his life in a deadly match against the powers that be. It is a fantasy of the political future, and like any such fantasy, serves its author as a magnifying device for an examination of the present.

Sarah MacLean. New York Times bestselling author Sarah MacLean returns with the much-anticipated final book in her Bareknuckle Bastards series, featuring a scoundrel duke and the powerful woman who brings him to his knees.

Vol 2. Aang and Katara are working tirelessly for peace when an impasse between Fire Lord Zuko and Earth King Kuei over Fire Nation colonies within the borders of the Earth Nation threatens to plunge the world back into war!

Meanwhile, Sokka must help Toph prepare her hapless first class of metalbending students to defend their school against a rival class of firebenders!

Finding a clue at last, Zuko enlists the aid of Team Avatar—and the most unlikely ally of all—to help uncover the biggest secret of his life.

Layla F. This eye-opening book challenges you to do the essential work of unpacking your biases, and helps white people take action and dismantle the privilege within themselves so that you can stop often unconsciously inflicting damage on people of color, and in turn, help other white people do better, too.

New York Times bestselling author Elizabeth Gilbert Based on the viral Instagram challenge that captivated participants worldwide, Me and White Supremacy takes readers on a day journey, complete with journal prompts, to do the necessary and vital work that can ultimately lead to improving race relations.

This book will walk you step-by-step through the work of examining: Examining your own white privilege What allyship really means Anti-blackness, racial stereotypes, and cultural appropriation Changing the way that you view and respond to race How to continue the work to create social change Awareness leads to action, and action leads to change.

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Book 1. Turning the envelope over, his hand trembling, Harry saw a purple wax seal bearing a coat of arms; a lion, an eagle, a badger and a snake surrounding a large letter 'H'.

Harry Potter has never even heard of Hogwarts when the letters start dropping on the doormat at number four, Privet Drive.

Addressed in green ink on yellowish parchment with a purple seal, they are swiftly confiscated by his grisly aunt and uncle. Then, on Harry's eleventh birthday, a great beetle-eyed giant of a man called Rubeus Hagrid bursts in with some astonishing news: Harry Potter is a wizard, and he has a place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.

An incredible adventure is about to begin! In search of their long-lost mother, Fire Lord Zuko and his deadly and insane sister Azula have brought Avatar Aang and his friends into a mysterious forest, but what they discover within may be more than they can face.

Will they too be lost in these woods forever? Vol 3. Avatar Aang travels to the spirit world to parley with an ancient power; bringing Fire Lord Zuko ever closer to discovering the truth about his mother's fate—and his own past.

Yet Zuko's sister Azula is becoming increasingly dangerous; threatening to ruin everything that Zuko; Aang; Katara; and Sokka have struggled to achieve on their search!

The Magicians. Beyond that, Quentin's life is dull until he finds himself admitted to a very secret, exclusive college of magic in Upstate New York, where he receives a thorough and rigorous education in the practice of modern sorcery.

Game of Thrones. Based on the characters from Archie Comics, Riverdale is a bold drama with a subversive take on a surreal, small-town life.

As a new school year begins, the town of Riverdale is reeling from the tragic death of high school golden boy Jason Blossom — and nothing feels the same.

High Maintenance. To his clients, he is simply known as 'The Guy,' a bike-riding pot-delivery man played by Ben Sinclair who brings viewers into the homes and routines of a variety of NYC characters, each with a different compelling reason for doing business with him.

Bless This Mess. A single camera comedy about a newlywed couple who gives up their drab and unfulfilling lives in NYC and moves to Nebraska to live a simpler life.

The Flash. This lightning-paced super hero drama follows the high-speed adventures of the Fastest Man Alive. After an unexpected accident at a Particle Accelerator, police scientist and everyday guy Barry Allen finds himself suddenly charged with the ability to move at incredible speeds, which he uses to help the people of Central City.

What We Do in the Shadows. After an unexpected visit from their dark lord and leader, the vampires are reminded of what they were initially tasked with upon their arrival in New York over a century ago — total and complete domination of the New World.

But what exactly is the best way to go about achieving said domination? He and his physician wife, Rainbow Tracee Ellis Ross , are living the American dream: great careers, four beautiful kids, and a colonial home in an upper middle class neighborhood.

But has success brought too much assimilation for this black family? With a little help from his Dad Lawrence Fishburne , Dre sets out to establish a sense of cultural identity for his family that honors their past while embracing the future.

Whiskey Cavalier. One part incredibly sensitive dude, the other military badass, his codename is Whiskey Cavalier.

Now, this team of highly skilled intelligence professionals will have to find a way to work together to occasionally save the world while navigating the rocky roads of friendship, romance and office politics.

From murder and espionage to terrorism and stolen submarines, these special agents travel the globe to investigate all crimes with Navy or Marine Corps ties.

New releases. The Empire of Gold: A Novel. Sex and Vanity: A Novel. Kevin Kwan. On her very first morning on the jewel-like island of Capri, Lucie Churchill sets eyes on George Zao and she instantly can't stand him.

She can't stand it when he gallantly offers to trade hotel rooms with her so that she can have a view of the Tyrrhenian Sea, she can't stand that he knows more about Casa Malaparte than she does, and she really can't stand it when he kisses her in the darkness of the ancient ruins of a Roman villa and they are caught by her snobbish, disapproving cousin Charlotte.

The daughter of an American-born Chinese mother and a blue-blooded New York father, Lucie has always sublimated the Asian side of herself in favor of the white side, and she adamantly denies having feelings for George.

Moving between summer playgrounds of privilege, peppered with decadent food and extravagant fashion, Sex and Vanity is a truly modern love story, a daring homage to A Room with a View, and a brilliantly funny comedy of manners set between two cultures.

Shadows of Foxworth. Book Forbidden passions have been the hallmark of the Dollanganger clan since Flowers in the Attic debuted more than forty years ago.

When a car crash kills their parents, Marlena and Yvon lose not only France, but also their identity. Trapped in a mansion with as many secrets as rooms, Marlena yearns for escape.

But in America, you can either make friends or make profit, and Yvon suddenly seems much more interested in the latter.

While he is free to leave the house, Marlena is left to avoid lecherous tutors and the secretary-to-wife track expected of a woman.

Caught between mastering the game to escape it and falling prey to its allure, she needs to learn fast—for Malcolm Foxworth has cast his eye in her direction.

And no family name can protect her from the twisted roots of the Dollanganger family tree. Michael Shellenberger.

It is not even our most serious environmental problem. Eddie S. Glaude Jr. James Baldwin grew disillusioned by the failure of the civil rights movement to force America to confront its lies about race.

In our own moment, when that confrontation feels more urgently needed than ever, what can we learn from his struggle?

But from that journey, Baldwin emerged with a sense of renewed purpose about the necessity of pushing forward in the face of disillusionment and despair.

It is at once a searing exploration that lays bare the tangled web of race, trauma, and memory, and a powerful interrogation of what we all must ask of ourselves in order to call forth a new America.

Maria Konnikova. How a New York Times bestselling author and New Yorker contributor parlayed a strong grasp of the science of human decision-making and a woeful ignorance of cards into a life-changing run as a professional poker player, under the wing of a legend of the game It's true that Maria Konnikova had never actually played poker before and didn't even know the rules when she approached Erik Seidel, Poker Hall of Fame inductee and winner of tens of millions of dollars in earnings, and convinced him to be her mentor.

But she knew her man: a famously thoughtful and broad-minded player, he was intrigued by her pitch that she wasn't interested in making money so much as learning about life.

She had faced a stretch of personal bad luck, and her reflections on the role of chance had led her to a giant of game theory, who pointed her to poker as the ultimate master class in learning to distinguish between what can be controlled and what can't.

And she certainly brought something to the table, including a Ph. So Seidel was in, and soon she was down the rabbit hole with him, into the wild, fiercely competitive, overwhelmingly masculine world of high-stakes Texas Hold'em, their initial end point the following year's World Series of Poker.

But then something extraordinary happened. Under Seidel's guidance, Konnikova did have many epiphanies about life that derived from her new pursuit, including how to better read, not just her opponents but far more importantly herself; how to identify what tilted her into an emotional state that got in the way of good decisions; and how to get to a place where she could accept luck for what it was, and what it wasn't.

But she also began to win. And win. In a little over a year, she began making earnest money from tournaments, ultimately totaling hundreds of thousands of dollars.

She won a major title, got a sponsor, and got used to being on television, and to headlines like "How one writer's book deal turned her into a professional poker player.

But in the end, Maria Konnikova is a writer and student of human behavior, and ultimately the point was to render her incredible journey into a container for its invaluable lessons.

The biggest bluff of all, she learned, is that skill is enough. Bad cards will come our way, but keeping our focus on how we play them and not on the outcome will keep us moving through many a dark patch, until the luck once again breaks our way.

Surrender, white people! After years of white supremacy in America, a reckoning is here. These are the terms of peace—and they are unconditional.

Hope you brought a sense of humor, because this is gonna sting. The Dilemma: A Novel. Paris has done it again!

Secrets, guilt, shame and heartbreak—this story has it all in spades. Keeping it secret will destroy him.

Livia has recently uncovered a secret about their daughter which, if revealed, will shake the foundation of their family to its core.

But before Marnie arrives, Adam hears some terrible news. Now he too is faced with a dilemma: Does he share what he's learned with his wife?

Is hiding the truth the same as telling a lie? And how far are Adam and Livia willing to go to protect the ones they love—and give each other a last few hours of happiness?

Party of Two. Jasmine Guillory. A chance meeting with a handsome stranger turns into a whirlwind affair that gets everyone talking. But when she meets a gorgeous man at a hotel bar and they spend the entire night flirting, she discovers too late that he is none other than hotshot junior senator Max Powell.

Olivia is surprised to find that Max is sweet, funny, and noble—not just some privileged white politician she assumed him to be.

But when they finally go public, the intense media scrutiny means people are now digging up her rocky past and criticizing her job, even her suitability as a trophy girlfriend.

Olivia knows what she has with Max is something special, but is it strong enough to survive the heat of the spotlight?

Jumanji: The Next Level. As they return to Jumanji to rescue one of their own, they discover that nothing is as they expect.

With more action and surprises, the players will have to brave parts unknown and unexplored, from the arid deserts to the snowy mountains, in order to escape.

You ever hear the one about the cop, the blonde, the psycho and the mafia princess? In a race against time, they must cross enemy territory and deliver a message that will stop a deadly attack on hundreds of soldiers—Blake's own brother among them.

The Gentlemen. A British drug lord tries to sell off his highly profitable empire to a dynasty of Oklahoma billionaires.

Robert Downey Jr. After losing his wife, he hermits himself away behind the high wall of his manor, but is forced to set sail on an epic adventure when the queen falls gravely ill.

Spies in Disguise. Lance is smooth, suave and debonair. Walter is none of the above. But this unlikely duo must team up for the ultimate mission to save the world when a "biodynamic concealment" experiment transforms Lance into a brave, fierce, majestic Knives Out.

The circumstances surrounding the death of crime novelist Harlan Thrombey are mysterious, but there's one thing that renowned Detective Benoit Blanc knows for sure-everyone in the wildly dysfunctional Thrombey family is a suspect.

Now, Blanc must sift through a web of lies and red herrings to uncover the truth. Yang and Ryan Hansen. Movies recommended for you.

My Little Pony: The Movie. A dark force threatens Ponyville, and the Mane 6 — Twilight Sparkle, Applejack, Rainbow Dash, Pinkie Pie, Fluttershy, and Rarity — embark on an unforgettable journey beyond Equestria where they meet new friends and exciting challenges on a quest to use the magic of friendship to save their home.

Underworld: Blood Wars. The fifth installment of the Underworld franchise. Based on the thrilling and inspirational life of an iconic American freedom fighter, Harriet tells the extraordinary tale of Harriet Tubman's escape from slavery and transformation into one of America's greatest heroes.

Haunted by memories of those she left behind, Harriet Cynthia Erivo ventures back into dangerous territory on a mission to lead others to freedom.

Witness the story of a woman who defied impossible odds to change the course of her life and the fate of the nation.

Before The Conjuring, there was Annabelle. Capable of unspeakable evil, the actual Annabelle doll exists locked up in an occult museum in Connecticut -- visited only by a priest who blesses her twice a month.

In this supernatural thriller from producer James Wan, Annabelle's story begins before the evil was unleashed. But Mia's delight with Annabelle doesn't last long.

On one horrific night, their home is invaded by members of a satanic cult, who violently attack the couple.

Spilled blood and terror are not all they leave behind. The cultists have conjured an entity so malevolent that nothing they did will compare to the sinister conduit to the damned that is now If I Stay.

A chronicle of a fatal car accident involving year-old muscian Mia and her boyfriend. Night School. When accidentally destroying his workplace gets successful salesman Teddy Kevin Hart fired, he can't find another decent job unless he finally gets his GED.

But two major things stand in his way: Carrie Tiffany Haddish , a teacher with no time for grown-up class clowns, and Stewart Taran Killam , Teddy's high school nemesis-turned-principal who will do anything to see him fail.

Now every school rule is about to be broken when they all go head-to-head in a wild battle of wits, pranks and lessons you can't learn in books.

Night School is in session! The Last Witch Hunter. Vin Diesel is Kaulder, an immortal witch hunter who has spent centuries tracking down those who practice evil magic.

When history's deadliest witches resurrect their bloodthirsty Queen Witch, Kaulder becomes humanity's last hope as he clashes with the supernatural in an epic battle for the ages.

The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones. Based on the Best-Selling series by Cassandra Clare.

Clary's life is turned upside down when her mother is kidnapped and it's revealed that she and her mother are actually shadowhunters - billed with protecting the world from downworlders such as vampires, werewolves and demons.

Clary must discover her talents and save her mother. When five struggling single moms put aside their differences to form a support group, they find inspiration and laughter in their new sisterhood, and help each other overcome the obstacles that stand in their way.

The Color of Law. Richard Rothstein. In this groundbreaking history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein, a leading authority on housing policy, explodes the myth that America's cities came to be racially divided through de facto segregation-that is, through individual prejudices, income differences, or the actions of private institutions like banks and real estate agencies.

Rather, The Color of Law incontrovertibly makes clear that it was de jure segregation-the laws and policy decisions passed by local, state, and federal governments-that actually promoted the discriminatory patterns that continue to this day.

Through extraordinary revelations and extensive research that Ta-Nehisi Coates has lauded as "brilliant" The Atlantic , Rothstein comes to chronicle nothing less than an untold story that begins in the s, showing how this process of de jure segregation began with explicit racial zoning, as millions of African Americans moved in a great historical migration from the south to the north.

As Jane Jacobs established in her classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, it was the deeply flawed urban planning of the s that created many of the impoverished neighborhoods we know.

Now, Rothstein expands our understanding of this history, showing how government policies led to the creation of officially segregated public housing and the demolition of previously integrated neighborhoods.

While urban areas rapidly deteriorated, the great American suburbanization of the post-World War II years was spurred on by federal subsidies for builders on the condition that no homes be sold to African Americans.

Finally, Rothstein shows how police and prosecutors brutally upheld these standards by supporting violent resistance to black families in white neighborhoods.

The Fair Housing Act of prohibited future discrimination but did nothing to reverse residential patterns that had become deeply embedded.

Yet recent outbursts of violence in cities like Baltimore, Ferguson, and Minneapolis show us precisely how the legacy of these earlier eras contributes to persistent racial unrest.

Neil Gaiman. Vampire Academy: Volume 1. Richelle Mead. Jonathan Van Ness. Who gave Jonathan Van Ness permission to be the radiant human he is today?

No one, honey. Octavia E.

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How to Be an Antiracist. Ibram X. At its core, racism is a powerful system that creates false hierarchies of human value; its warped logic extends beyond race, from the way we regard people of different ethnicities or skin colors to the way we treat people of different sexes, gender identities, and body types.

Racism intersects with class and culture and geography and even changes the way we see and value ourselves. In How to Be an Antiracist, Kendi takes readers through a widening circle of antiracist ideas—from the most basic concepts to visionary possibilities—that will help readers see all forms of racism clearly, understand their poisonous consequences, and work to oppose them in our systems and in ourselves.

Kendi weaves an electrifying combination of ethics, history, law, and science with his own personal story of awakening to antiracism.

This is an essential work for anyone who wants to go beyond the awareness of racism to the next step: contributing to the formation of a just and equitable society.

Mary L. In this revelatory, authoritative portrait of Donald J. Trump and the toxic family that made him, Mary L.

She describes a nightmare of traumas, destructive relationships, and a tragic combination of neglect and abuse.

She explains how specific events and general family patterns created the damaged man who currently occupies the Oval Office, including the strange and harmful relationship between Fred Trump and his two oldest sons, Fred Jr.

A firsthand witness to countless holiday meals and interactions, Mary brings an incisive wit and unexpected humor to sometimes grim, often confounding family events.

Numerous pundits, armchair psychologists, and journalists have sought to parse Donald J. Trump has the education, insight, and intimate familiarity needed to reveal what makes Donald, and the rest of her clan, tick.

Robin DiAngelo. The New York Times best-selling book exploring the counterproductive reactions white people have when their assumptions about race are challenged, and how these reactions maintain racial inequality.

Referring to the defensive moves that white people make when challenged racially, white fragility is characterized by emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and by behaviors including argumentation and silence.

These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium and prevent any meaningful cross-racial dialogue.

In this in-depth exploration, DiAngelo examines how white fragility develops, how it protects racial inequality, and what we can do to engage more constructively.

Download readers guides at www. Gary John Bishop. Suzanne Collins. It is the morning of the reaping that will kick off the tenth annual Hunger Games.

In the Capitol, eighteen-year-old Coriolanus Snow is preparing for his one shot at glory as a mentor in the Games. The once-mighty house of Snow has fallen on hard times, its fate hanging on the slender chance that Coriolanus will be able to outcharm, outwit, and outmaneuver his fellow students to mentor the winning tribute.

The odds are against him. Their fates are now completely intertwined — every choice Coriolanus makes could lead to favor or failure, triumph or ruin.

Inside the arena, it will be a fight to the death. Outside the arena, Coriolanus starts to feel for his doomed tribute. Michelle Alexander.

Most important of all, it has spawned a whole generation of criminal justice reform activists and organizations motivated by Michelle Alexanders unforgettable argument that we have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it.

As the Birmingham News proclaimed, it is undoubtedly the most important book published in this century about the U.

Now, ten years after it was first published, The New Press is proud to issue a tenth-anniversary edition with a new preface by Michelle Alexander that discusses the impact the book has had and the state of the criminal justice reform movement today.

George Orwell. Blackstone Audio presents a new recording of this immensely popular book. George Orwell depicts a gray, totalitarian world dominated by Big Brother and its vast network of agents, including the Thought Police, a world in which news is manufactured according to the authorities' will and people live tepid lives by rote.

Winston Smith, the hero with no heroic qualities, longs only for truth and decency. But living in a social system in which privacy does not exist and where those with unorthodox ideas are brainwashed or put to death, he knows there is no hope for him.

He knows even as he continues to pursue his forbidden love affair that eventually he will come to destruction. The year has come and gone, yet George Orwell's nightmare vision in of the world we were becoming is still the great modern classic of negative Utopia.

The Summer House. James Patterson. When seven murder victims are found in a small town, the homicide investigation shakes a small-town sheriff to her core in James Patterson's tense thriller.

Once a luxurious southern getaway on a rustic lake, then reduced to a dilapidated crash pad, the Summer House is now the grisly scene of a nighttime mass murder.

Eyewitnesses point to four Army Rangers -- known as the Night Ninjas -- recently returned from Afghanistan. But the major and his elite team arrive in sweltering Georgia with no idea their grim jobs will be made exponentially more challenging by local law enforcement, who resists the Army's intrusion and stonewall them at every turn.

As Cook and his squad struggle to uncover the truth behind the condemning evidence, the pieces just won't fit -- and forces are rallying to make certain damning secrets die alongside the victims in the murder house.

With his own people in the cross-hairs, Cook takes a desperate gamble to find answers -- even if it means returning to a hell of his own worst nightmares.

Max Brooks. Yet it is also far more than that. Because if what Kate Holland saw in those days is real, then we must accept the impossible.

We must accept that the creature known as Bigfoot walks among us—and that it is a beast of terrible strength and ferocity. Vol 1. The wait is over!

Ever since the conclusion of Avatar: The Last Airbender, its millions of fans have been hungry for more—and it's finally here!

This series of digests rejoins Aang and friends for exciting new adventures, beginning with a faceoff against the Fire Nation that threatens to throw the world into another war, testing all of Aang's powers and ingenuity!

Trevor Noah. Trevor was born to a white Swiss father and a black Xhosa mother at a time when such a union was punishable by five years in prison.

Born a Crime is the story of a mischievous young boy who grows into a restless young man as he struggles to find himself in a world where he was never supposed to exist.

The stories collected here are by turns hilarious, dramatic, and deeply affecting. Whether subsisting on caterpillars for dinner during hard times, being thrown from a moving car during an attempted kidnapping, or just trying to survive the life-and-death pitfalls of dating in high school, Trevor illuminates his curious world with an incisive wit and unflinching honesty.

It is, above all, a way of asserting power. Winston Smith is a man in grave danger for the simple reason that his memory still functions.

Drawn into a forbidden love affair, Winston finds the courage to join a secret revolutionary organization called The Brotherhood, dedicated to the destruction of the Party.

Together with his beloved Julia, he hazards his life in a deadly match against the powers that be. It is a fantasy of the political future, and like any such fantasy, serves its author as a magnifying device for an examination of the present.

Sarah MacLean. New York Times bestselling author Sarah MacLean returns with the much-anticipated final book in her Bareknuckle Bastards series, featuring a scoundrel duke and the powerful woman who brings him to his knees.

Vol 2. Aang and Katara are working tirelessly for peace when an impasse between Fire Lord Zuko and Earth King Kuei over Fire Nation colonies within the borders of the Earth Nation threatens to plunge the world back into war!

Meanwhile, Sokka must help Toph prepare her hapless first class of metalbending students to defend their school against a rival class of firebenders!

Finding a clue at last, Zuko enlists the aid of Team Avatar—and the most unlikely ally of all—to help uncover the biggest secret of his life.

Layla F. This eye-opening book challenges you to do the essential work of unpacking your biases, and helps white people take action and dismantle the privilege within themselves so that you can stop often unconsciously inflicting damage on people of color, and in turn, help other white people do better, too.

New York Times bestselling author Elizabeth Gilbert Based on the viral Instagram challenge that captivated participants worldwide, Me and White Supremacy takes readers on a day journey, complete with journal prompts, to do the necessary and vital work that can ultimately lead to improving race relations.

This book will walk you step-by-step through the work of examining: Examining your own white privilege What allyship really means Anti-blackness, racial stereotypes, and cultural appropriation Changing the way that you view and respond to race How to continue the work to create social change Awareness leads to action, and action leads to change.

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Book 1. Turning the envelope over, his hand trembling, Harry saw a purple wax seal bearing a coat of arms; a lion, an eagle, a badger and a snake surrounding a large letter 'H'.

Harry Potter has never even heard of Hogwarts when the letters start dropping on the doormat at number four, Privet Drive.

Addressed in green ink on yellowish parchment with a purple seal, they are swiftly confiscated by his grisly aunt and uncle. Then, on Harry's eleventh birthday, a great beetle-eyed giant of a man called Rubeus Hagrid bursts in with some astonishing news: Harry Potter is a wizard, and he has a place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.

An incredible adventure is about to begin! In search of their long-lost mother, Fire Lord Zuko and his deadly and insane sister Azula have brought Avatar Aang and his friends into a mysterious forest, but what they discover within may be more than they can face.

Will they too be lost in these woods forever? Vol 3. Avatar Aang travels to the spirit world to parley with an ancient power; bringing Fire Lord Zuko ever closer to discovering the truth about his mother's fate—and his own past.

Yet Zuko's sister Azula is becoming increasingly dangerous; threatening to ruin everything that Zuko; Aang; Katara; and Sokka have struggled to achieve on their search!

The Magicians. Beyond that, Quentin's life is dull until he finds himself admitted to a very secret, exclusive college of magic in Upstate New York, where he receives a thorough and rigorous education in the practice of modern sorcery.

Game of Thrones. Based on the characters from Archie Comics, Riverdale is a bold drama with a subversive take on a surreal, small-town life.

As a new school year begins, the town of Riverdale is reeling from the tragic death of high school golden boy Jason Blossom — and nothing feels the same.

High Maintenance. To his clients, he is simply known as 'The Guy,' a bike-riding pot-delivery man played by Ben Sinclair who brings viewers into the homes and routines of a variety of NYC characters, each with a different compelling reason for doing business with him.

Bless This Mess. A single camera comedy about a newlywed couple who gives up their drab and unfulfilling lives in NYC and moves to Nebraska to live a simpler life.

The Flash. This lightning-paced super hero drama follows the high-speed adventures of the Fastest Man Alive. After an unexpected accident at a Particle Accelerator, police scientist and everyday guy Barry Allen finds himself suddenly charged with the ability to move at incredible speeds, which he uses to help the people of Central City.

What We Do in the Shadows. After an unexpected visit from their dark lord and leader, the vampires are reminded of what they were initially tasked with upon their arrival in New York over a century ago — total and complete domination of the New World.

But what exactly is the best way to go about achieving said domination? He and his physician wife, Rainbow Tracee Ellis Ross , are living the American dream: great careers, four beautiful kids, and a colonial home in an upper middle class neighborhood.

But has success brought too much assimilation for this black family? With a little help from his Dad Lawrence Fishburne , Dre sets out to establish a sense of cultural identity for his family that honors their past while embracing the future.

Whiskey Cavalier. One part incredibly sensitive dude, the other military badass, his codename is Whiskey Cavalier. Now, this team of highly skilled intelligence professionals will have to find a way to work together to occasionally save the world while navigating the rocky roads of friendship, romance and office politics.

From murder and espionage to terrorism and stolen submarines, these special agents travel the globe to investigate all crimes with Navy or Marine Corps ties.

New releases. The Empire of Gold: A Novel. Sex and Vanity: A Novel. Kevin Kwan. On her very first morning on the jewel-like island of Capri, Lucie Churchill sets eyes on George Zao and she instantly can't stand him.

She can't stand it when he gallantly offers to trade hotel rooms with her so that she can have a view of the Tyrrhenian Sea, she can't stand that he knows more about Casa Malaparte than she does, and she really can't stand it when he kisses her in the darkness of the ancient ruins of a Roman villa and they are caught by her snobbish, disapproving cousin Charlotte.

The daughter of an American-born Chinese mother and a blue-blooded New York father, Lucie has always sublimated the Asian side of herself in favor of the white side, and she adamantly denies having feelings for George.

Moving between summer playgrounds of privilege, peppered with decadent food and extravagant fashion, Sex and Vanity is a truly modern love story, a daring homage to A Room with a View, and a brilliantly funny comedy of manners set between two cultures.

Shadows of Foxworth. Book Forbidden passions have been the hallmark of the Dollanganger clan since Flowers in the Attic debuted more than forty years ago.

When a car crash kills their parents, Marlena and Yvon lose not only France, but also their identity.

Trapped in a mansion with as many secrets as rooms, Marlena yearns for escape. But in America, you can either make friends or make profit, and Yvon suddenly seems much more interested in the latter.

While he is free to leave the house, Marlena is left to avoid lecherous tutors and the secretary-to-wife track expected of a woman.

Caught between mastering the game to escape it and falling prey to its allure, she needs to learn fast—for Malcolm Foxworth has cast his eye in her direction.

And no family name can protect her from the twisted roots of the Dollanganger family tree. Michael Shellenberger. It is not even our most serious environmental problem.

Eddie S. Glaude Jr. James Baldwin grew disillusioned by the failure of the civil rights movement to force America to confront its lies about race.

In our own moment, when that confrontation feels more urgently needed than ever, what can we learn from his struggle?

But from that journey, Baldwin emerged with a sense of renewed purpose about the necessity of pushing forward in the face of disillusionment and despair.

It is at once a searing exploration that lays bare the tangled web of race, trauma, and memory, and a powerful interrogation of what we all must ask of ourselves in order to call forth a new America.

Maria Konnikova. How a New York Times bestselling author and New Yorker contributor parlayed a strong grasp of the science of human decision-making and a woeful ignorance of cards into a life-changing run as a professional poker player, under the wing of a legend of the game It's true that Maria Konnikova had never actually played poker before and didn't even know the rules when she approached Erik Seidel, Poker Hall of Fame inductee and winner of tens of millions of dollars in earnings, and convinced him to be her mentor.

But she knew her man: a famously thoughtful and broad-minded player, he was intrigued by her pitch that she wasn't interested in making money so much as learning about life.

She had faced a stretch of personal bad luck, and her reflections on the role of chance had led her to a giant of game theory, who pointed her to poker as the ultimate master class in learning to distinguish between what can be controlled and what can't.

And she certainly brought something to the table, including a Ph. So Seidel was in, and soon she was down the rabbit hole with him, into the wild, fiercely competitive, overwhelmingly masculine world of high-stakes Texas Hold'em, their initial end point the following year's World Series of Poker.

But then something extraordinary happened. Under Seidel's guidance, Konnikova did have many epiphanies about life that derived from her new pursuit, including how to better read, not just her opponents but far more importantly herself; how to identify what tilted her into an emotional state that got in the way of good decisions; and how to get to a place where she could accept luck for what it was, and what it wasn't.

But she also began to win. And win. In a little over a year, she began making earnest money from tournaments, ultimately totaling hundreds of thousands of dollars.

She won a major title, got a sponsor, and got used to being on television, and to headlines like "How one writer's book deal turned her into a professional poker player.

But in the end, Maria Konnikova is a writer and student of human behavior, and ultimately the point was to render her incredible journey into a container for its invaluable lessons.

The biggest bluff of all, she learned, is that skill is enough. Bad cards will come our way, but keeping our focus on how we play them and not on the outcome will keep us moving through many a dark patch, until the luck once again breaks our way.

Surrender, white people! After years of white supremacy in America, a reckoning is here. These are the terms of peace—and they are unconditional.

Hope you brought a sense of humor, because this is gonna sting. The Dilemma: A Novel. Paris has done it again! Secrets, guilt, shame and heartbreak—this story has it all in spades.

Keeping it secret will destroy him. Livia has recently uncovered a secret about their daughter which, if revealed, will shake the foundation of their family to its core.

But before Marnie arrives, Adam hears some terrible news. Now he too is faced with a dilemma: Does he share what he's learned with his wife?

Is hiding the truth the same as telling a lie? And how far are Adam and Livia willing to go to protect the ones they love—and give each other a last few hours of happiness?

Party of Two. Jasmine Guillory. A chance meeting with a handsome stranger turns into a whirlwind affair that gets everyone talking.

But when she meets a gorgeous man at a hotel bar and they spend the entire night flirting, she discovers too late that he is none other than hotshot junior senator Max Powell.

Olivia is surprised to find that Max is sweet, funny, and noble—not just some privileged white politician she assumed him to be.

But when they finally go public, the intense media scrutiny means people are now digging up her rocky past and criticizing her job, even her suitability as a trophy girlfriend.

Olivia knows what she has with Max is something special, but is it strong enough to survive the heat of the spotlight?

Jumanji: The Next Level. As they return to Jumanji to rescue one of their own, they discover that nothing is as they expect. With more action and surprises, the players will have to brave parts unknown and unexplored, from the arid deserts to the snowy mountains, in order to escape.

You ever hear the one about the cop, the blonde, the psycho and the mafia princess? In a race against time, they must cross enemy territory and deliver a message that will stop a deadly attack on hundreds of soldiers—Blake's own brother among them.

The Gentlemen. A British drug lord tries to sell off his highly profitable empire to a dynasty of Oklahoma billionaires.

Robert Downey Jr. After losing his wife, he hermits himself away behind the high wall of his manor, but is forced to set sail on an epic adventure when the queen falls gravely ill.

Spies in Disguise. Lance is smooth, suave and debonair. Walter is none of the above. But this unlikely duo must team up for the ultimate mission to save the world when a "biodynamic concealment" experiment transforms Lance into a brave, fierce, majestic Knives Out.

The circumstances surrounding the death of crime novelist Harlan Thrombey are mysterious, but there's one thing that renowned Detective Benoit Blanc knows for sure-everyone in the wildly dysfunctional Thrombey family is a suspect.

Now, Blanc must sift through a web of lies and red herrings to uncover the truth. Yang and Ryan Hansen.

Movies recommended for you. My Little Pony: The Movie. A dark force threatens Ponyville, and the Mane 6 — Twilight Sparkle, Applejack, Rainbow Dash, Pinkie Pie, Fluttershy, and Rarity — embark on an unforgettable journey beyond Equestria where they meet new friends and exciting challenges on a quest to use the magic of friendship to save their home.

Underworld: Blood Wars. The fifth installment of the Underworld franchise. Based on the thrilling and inspirational life of an iconic American freedom fighter, Harriet tells the extraordinary tale of Harriet Tubman's escape from slavery and transformation into one of America's greatest heroes.

Haunted by memories of those she left behind, Harriet Cynthia Erivo ventures back into dangerous territory on a mission to lead others to freedom.

Witness the story of a woman who defied impossible odds to change the course of her life and the fate of the nation.

Before The Conjuring, there was Annabelle. Capable of unspeakable evil, the actual Annabelle doll exists locked up in an occult museum in Connecticut -- visited only by a priest who blesses her twice a month.

In this supernatural thriller from producer James Wan, Annabelle's story begins before the evil was unleashed.

But Mia's delight with Annabelle doesn't last long. On one horrific night, their home is invaded by members of a satanic cult, who violently attack the couple.

Spilled blood and terror are not all they leave behind. The cultists have conjured an entity so malevolent that nothing they did will compare to the sinister conduit to the damned that is now If I Stay.

A chronicle of a fatal car accident involving year-old muscian Mia and her boyfriend. Night School. When accidentally destroying his workplace gets successful salesman Teddy Kevin Hart fired, he can't find another decent job unless he finally gets his GED.

But two major things stand in his way: Carrie Tiffany Haddish , a teacher with no time for grown-up class clowns, and Stewart Taran Killam , Teddy's high school nemesis-turned-principal who will do anything to see him fail.

Now every school rule is about to be broken when they all go head-to-head in a wild battle of wits, pranks and lessons you can't learn in books.

Night School is in session! The Last Witch Hunter. Vin Diesel is Kaulder, an immortal witch hunter who has spent centuries tracking down those who practice evil magic.

When history's deadliest witches resurrect their bloodthirsty Queen Witch, Kaulder becomes humanity's last hope as he clashes with the supernatural in an epic battle for the ages.

The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones. Based on the Best-Selling series by Cassandra Clare. Clary's life is turned upside down when her mother is kidnapped and it's revealed that she and her mother are actually shadowhunters - billed with protecting the world from downworlders such as vampires, werewolves and demons.

Clary must discover her talents and save her mother. When five struggling single moms put aside their differences to form a support group, they find inspiration and laughter in their new sisterhood, and help each other overcome the obstacles that stand in their way.

The Color of Law. Richard Rothstein. In this groundbreaking history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein, a leading authority on housing policy, explodes the myth that America's cities came to be racially divided through de facto segregation-that is, through individual prejudices, income differences, or the actions of private institutions like banks and real estate agencies.

Rather, The Color of Law incontrovertibly makes clear that it was de jure segregation-the laws and policy decisions passed by local, state, and federal governments-that actually promoted the discriminatory patterns that continue to this day.

Through extraordinary revelations and extensive research that Ta-Nehisi Coates has lauded as "brilliant" The Atlantic , Rothstein comes to chronicle nothing less than an untold story that begins in the s, showing how this process of de jure segregation began with explicit racial zoning, as millions of African Americans moved in a great historical migration from the south to the north.

As Jane Jacobs established in her classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, it was the deeply flawed urban planning of the s that created many of the impoverished neighborhoods we know.

Now, Rothstein expands our understanding of this history, showing how government policies led to the creation of officially segregated public housing and the demolition of previously integrated neighborhoods.

While urban areas rapidly deteriorated, the great American suburbanization of the post-World War II years was spurred on by federal subsidies for builders on the condition that no homes be sold to African Americans.

Finally, Rothstein shows how police and prosecutors brutally upheld these standards by supporting violent resistance to black families in white neighborhoods.

The Fair Housing Act of prohibited future discrimination but did nothing to reverse residential patterns that had become deeply embedded.

Yet recent outbursts of violence in cities like Baltimore, Ferguson, and Minneapolis show us precisely how the legacy of these earlier eras contributes to persistent racial unrest.

Neil Gaiman. Polylactic acid can be processed like most thermoplastics into fiber for example, using conventional melt spinning processes and film.

PLA has similar mechanical properties to PETE polymer, but has a significantly lower maximum continuous use temperature.

The tensile strength for 3-D printed PLA was previously determined. PLA can be solvent welded using dichloromethane.

PLA is soluble in a range of organic solvents. If the filament is soaked in a small amount of ethylacetate, it will dissolve and can be used to clean 3D printing extruder heads or remove PLA supports.

Other safe solvents to use include propylene carbonate , which is safer than ethylacetate but is difficult to purchase commercially.

Pyridine can also be used however this is less safe than ethylacetate and propylene carbonate. It also has a distinct bad fish odor.

PLA is used as a feedstock material in desktop fused filament fabrication 3D printers e. This is known as "lost PLA casting", a type of investment casting.

PLA can degrade into innocuous lactic acid, so it is used as medical implants in the form of anchors, screws, plates, pins, rods, and as a mesh.

This gradual degradation is desirable for a support structure, because it gradually transfers the load to the body e. PLA can also be used as a decomposable packaging material, either cast, injection-molded, or spun.

In the form of a film, it shrinks upon heating, allowing it to be used in shrink tunnels. It is useful for producing loose-fill packaging, compost bags, food packaging, and disposable tableware.

In the form of fibers and nonwoven fabrics , PLA also has many potential uses, for example as upholstery , disposable garments, awnings , feminine hygiene products, and diapers.

Thanks to its bio-compatibility and biodegradability, PLA has also found ample interest as a polymeric scaffold for drug delivery purposes.

Racemic and regular PLLA has a low glass transition temperature, which is undesirable. It has a wide range of applications, such as woven shirts ironability , microwavable trays, hot-fill applications and even engineering plastics in this case, the stereocomplex is blended with a rubber-like polymer such as ABS.

Such blends also have good form stability and visual transparency, making them useful for low-end packaging applications.

Pure poly-L-lactic acid PLLA , on the other hand, is the main ingredient in Sculptra , a long-lasting facial volume enhancer, primarily used for treating lipoatrophy of cheeks.

Progress in biotechnology has resulted in the development of commercial production of the D enantiomer form, something that was not possible until recently.

Transparent PLA. PLA is degraded abiotically by three mechanisms: [37]. The degradation rate is very slow in ambient temperatures.

PLA samples of various molecular weights were degraded into methyl lactate a green solvent by using a metal complex catalyst.

PLA also be degraded by some bacteria, such as Amycolatopsis and Saccharothrix. A purified protease from Amycolatopsis sp.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biodegradable polymer. CAS Number. Solubility in water. Tea bags made of PLA. Peppermint tea is enclosed.

Play media. Matbase - Material Properties Database. Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 9 May Selke; Hideto Tsuji eds.

Michael Polymer Bulletin. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Archived from the original on 1 December Bibcode : Sci Journal of Polymers and the Environment.

Archived from the original on 26 May Polymer Degradation and Stability. Progress in Polymer Science. Tipton Fiore; Feng Jing; Victor G.

Young Jr. Cramer; Marc A. Hillmyer Polymer Chemistry. Annealing condition effects on properties and morphologies of poly l-lactide ".

Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. Colloid and Polymer Science. Polymers for Advanced Technologies. Archived from the original on 1 May

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